UpWaste is developing a flexible and modular system for the conversion of agricultural residues into microalgae (Galdieria sulphuraria) and insect (Hermetia illucens) biomass. Difficult to characterize agricultural residues, such as manure, straw, food waste and husks, are converted into microbial safe algal and insect biomasses with defined composition. These biomasses can be used to produce food and chemicals by relevant industries. Socio-economic and environmental impact analyses are conducted to assess social acceptability, environmental impact and economic viability. UpWaste addresses the challenges of agriculture and sustainable development through sustainable intensification of the agricultural sector and efficient use of agricultural residues. In addition, UpWaste will define potential risks of rebound effects associated with the application of the modular system. The purpose of UpWaste is to exploit synergies of agricultural residue producers and biomass recyclers as well as to contribute to the development of regional rural bioeconomy concepts. This will be realized by a multidisciplinary approach, taking into account knowledge and expertise from a wide range of disciplines.